Diamond is also considered as precious gem. Diamond is described extensively in Diamond Guide.
Color - Emerald Green to Dark Green
Mohs hardness scale - 7.5 - 8
Mineral Class - Beryl
Source - Found in Columbia, Brazil, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Afghanistan, USA
Emerald is one of the most fascinating and beautiful gemstones. The name of this remarkable gemstone comes from Greek 'Smaragdos', meaning 'Green Stone'. Its beautiful green color, combined with durability and rarity, makes it the one of the most valuable gemstones. Deep green is the most desired color in emeralds. The green color of this stone occupies a special position in many cultures and religions.
Although Emeralds are notorious for their flaws but still they have been considered as high esteem gems since ancient times. Flawless stones are very uncommon, and are noted for their great value, sometimes even more than diamonds. Its good hardness protects the stone to a large extent from scratches but it may develop internal cracks if banged hard or if exposed to extreme temperature. Emeralds that were treated to mask internal flaws should never be cleaned with an ultrasonic jewelry cleaner, nor should they be washed with soap. These practices will remove the oil and expose the hidden internal flaws.
Color - Bright red, brownish-red, purplish-red, dark red
Mohs hardness scale - 9
Mineral Class - Corundum
Source - Found mainly in Burma, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Tanzania
Ruby is the red variety of the mineral corundum, one of the hardest minerals on Earth, of which the sapphire is also a variety. Corundum is the mineral form of alumina which crystallizes in the hexagonal system. The red color of ruby results from a small admixture of chromic oxide. Only red corundum is entitled to be called ruby, all other colors being classified as sapphires. The most prized tint is blood red or crimson known in the trade as 'pigeon's blood' red.
The name of this rich and noble gemstone comes from Latin 'Rubens' for 'Red'. In Sanskrit, the ruby is called 'Ratnaraj', means 'the king of precious stones'. For thousands of years, the ruby has been considered one of the most valuable gemstones on Earth. It has everything a precious stone should have: magnificent color, excellent hardness and outstanding brilliance. In addition to that, it is an extremely rare gemstone, especially in its finer qualities. The most important thing about this precious stone is its color. The red color of the ruby is incomparable: warm and fiery. This gemstone has excellent hardness, durability, luster, and rarity too. Transparent rubies of large sizes are even rarer than diamonds.
The ruby is considered as an excellent choice for the jewelry. Beyond its incomparably rich red hue, which alone might be enough attraction, the ruby is second only to the diamond for strength and durability. Although Ruby is a tough and durable gem, but it is still subject to chipping and fracture if handled roughly
Color - Blue, Yellow, Green, White, Colorless, Pink, Orange, Brown and Purple
Mohs hardness scale - 9
Mineral Class - Corundum
Source - Found mainly in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, Australia, India, Brazil and Africa
Sapphire is also a variety of the mineral Corundum and represents all the colors except red Corundum, which is Ruby. Its physical and chemical properties are virtually similar to properties of Ruby. Blue is the main color of the Sapphire whereas this gemstone is also found in colors like green, orange, pink, gray, colorless, black, brown, and purple. The word 'Sapphire' in its plain context refers only to blue Sapphire, unless a prefix color is specified. Sapphire with a color other than blue is often called a 'Fancy' in the gem trade. The Sapphire gemstone symbolizes harmony, friendship and loyalty.
Sapphire is the most precious blue gemstone. It is a most desirable gem due to its color, hardness, durability, and luster. Value of this gemstone depends on its size, color and transparency. Top-quality sapphires are extremely rare in all the gemstone mines of the world. Cutting of this gemstone requires great skills and experience and it is the job of the cutter to orientate the raw crystals in such a way that the color is brought out to its best improvement. Both Sapphires and Rubies have been successfully and widely produced synthetically in laboratories, and in appearance, chemical composition and hardness are almost identical to the natural gems. France is the major production hub for synthetic Corundum.
The Sapphire is also considered as an excellent choice for the jewelry. In terms of hardness and durability, it is second only to the diamond (and equal to the ruby). It can be worn everyday without the caution needed with more fragile gemstones like the opal or topaz. Although Sapphire is a hard and durable gem, but it is still subject to chipping and fracture if handled very roughly.
Cat's eye really became popular by the end of the 19th century when the Duke of Connaught gave a ring with a cat's eye as an engagement token; this was sufficient to make the stone more popular and increase its value greatly. Until that time, cat's eye had predominantly been present in gem and mineral collections . The increased demand in turn created an intensified search for it in Sri Lanka. Early 20th century prices could go up as high as $8000 for a cut stone & also in india is large production country of cats eye the Ural Mountains, but have since been found in larger sizes in Brazil. Other deposits are located in India (Andhra Pradesh), Madagascar, and Sri Lanka
Since ancient times Coral is a famous gem in India for its magnificent aftereffects, if worn with proper knowledge Coral is found in sea in the form of roots. In scientific terms it is an extract of calcium carbonate. It is found in saffron, red and white colours. According to Astrology, it is a gemstone of Mars. Mars is a planet, which radiates red light. Similarly, Coral is also a collection of red light. Thus Coral powerfully penetrates the red light from the mars planet in to a human body. It suits more to the people belonging to Aries and Scorpio Zodiac sings. It helps in business, service and fulfills every wish.
Coral is highly beneficial for the people who are coward or easily defeated by their enemies. It strengthens the wearer's self-confidence. If you put paste of Coral with fragrant flower of pandanus (Kevera) and rose water on the stomach of a pregnant woman, it prevents abortion.
Making a child wear coral will free him or her from childhood problems like stomachache etc The same species is also found at Atlantic sites near the Strait of Gibraltar and at the Cape Verde Islands. Other Corallium species are native to the western Pacificnotably around Japan (Corallium japonicum) Italy and Taiwan these occur at depths of 350 to 1500 meters below sea level in areas with strong currents. gomed hessonite It bestows wealth, happiness and good health. Hessonite Gemstone is popular in producing prosperity.
The most important thing to concern is that wearer should be kept in mind it must be wear it by consulting with an astrologer. Because the thing is behind that if it does not suit you, it can cause of restlessness and discomfort. The other benefits of Gomedh is it help in gaining victory on the enemies and also help in curing mental issues Hessonite comes chiefly from Sri Lanka and India where it is found generally in placer deposits, though its occurrence in its native matrix is not unknown. It is also found in Brazil and California.
Color - White, White tinted with Cream, Pink, Yellow, Green, Blue, Brown, Purple, or Black.
Mohs hardness scale - 2.5 - 4.5
Source - Found mainly in Persian Gulf, China Sea
There are two types of Pearls: Natural Pearls, formed inside wild oysters, practically impossible to find nowadays, and Cultured Pearls in which the production of the pearl is artificially induced. For producing cultured pearls, shell beads are placed inside an oyster and the oyster is returned to the water. When the pearls are later harvested, the oyster has covered the bead with layers of nacre. The finest Natural Pearls are fished almost exclusively from the Persian Gulf and the China Sea, while the best cultivated ones come from Japan, Korea and more recently Australia. Fine Natural Pearls are much more expensive and rare to find than Cultured Pearls.
Pearls are usually white, sometimes with a creamy or pinkish tinge, but may be tinted with yellow, green, blue, brown, purple, or black. Pearls are available in different shapes: round, semi-round, button, drop, pear, oval, baroque, and ringed. Perfectly round Pearls are the rarest and most expensive.Pearl is a rare and living substance and should be treated with great care.
It bestows wealth, happiness and good health. Hessonite Gemstone is popular in producing prosperity. The most important thing to concern is that wearer should be kept in mind it must be wear it by consulting with an astrologer. Because the thing is behind that if it does not suit you, it can cause of restlessness and discomfort. The other benefits of Gomedh is it help in gaining victory on the enemies and also help in curing mental issues Hessonite comes chiefly from Sri Lanka and India where it is found generally in placer deposits, though its occurrence in its native matrix is not unknown. It is also found in Brazil and California.